Pretende aquí ofrecerse una guía bibliográfica de textos relevantes para la clarificación conceptual que persigue el proyecto clasificados en tres grandes grupos: 1) Revisiones críticas; 2) Textos clásicos; 3) Puntos de vista actuales. A su vez, los de tipo 2 y 3, se subdividen en áreas temáticas.

Esta revisión bibliográfica ni pretende ser exhaustiva ni definitiva. Se agradece cualquier comentario, crítica o sugerencia acerca de nuevos títulos, la categorización propuesta de los textos e incluso su eliminación. Para ello puede emplearse el espacio reservado para comentarios al pie de esta página o bien escribiendo a la coordinación del proyecto.

Revisiones críticas

Burgin, Mark (2010). Theory of Information: Fundamentality, Diversity and Unification. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Capurro, R. (1978). Information. Ein Beitrag zur etymologischen und ideengeschichtlichen Begründung des Informationsbegriffs [Información. Una contribución a su fundamento etimológico a través de la historia de las ideas]. Munich: Saur.

Capurro, R. & Hjørland, B. (2003). The Concept of Information. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Ed. B. Cronin, 37(8), 343-411. [Draft version available online] < > [Accessed: 12/11/2009].

Floridi, L. (2010). Information: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Floridi, L. (2011). The philosphy of Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Janich, Peter (2006). Was ist Information? Kritik einer Legende [¿Qué es información? Crítica de una leyenda]. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

Lyre, Holger (2002). Informationstheorie. Eine philosophisch-naturwissenschaftliche Einführung. [Teoría de la información. Una introducción filosófica y naturalista] München:  Wilhelm Fink.

Segal, J. (2003). Le Zéro et le Un. Histoire de la notion scientifique d'information. Paris: Syllepse.

Textos clásicos

Teoría matemática de la información

Shannon, C. E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal27, 379–423, 623–656.

Shannon, C. & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: The University of Illinois Press.

Kotelnikov, V.A. (1959). The Theory of Optimum Noise Immunity. Russia 1956, USA: McGraw Hill.


Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics : Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ashby, W. Ross (1956). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman & Hall.

Beer, S. (1959). Cybernetics and Management. London: English Universities Press.

Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and the Human Sciences). New Jersey: Hampton Press.

Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F.J. (1980). Autopoiesis and congnition: the realization of the living. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reídle.

Foerster, H. von (1981). Observing systems. Seaside, CA: Intersystems Publications.

Teoría algorítmica de la información

Solomonoff, R. J. (1960). A Preliminary Report on a General Theory of Inductive Inference. Report V-131, Zator Co., Cambridge, Ma. Feb 4, 1960.

Solomonoff, R. J. (1964). A formal theory of inductive inference. Inf. Control(7), 1-22 (I part), 224-254 (II part).

Kolmogorov, A. N. (1965). Three approaches to the quantitative definition of ‘information'. Problems of Information Transmission1(1), 3-11.

Chaitin, G. J. (1966). On the length of programs for computing finite binary sequences. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery13, 547-569.

Vitányi, P. (2006). Meaningful Information. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 52(10), 4617-4626.

Semántica de la información

Morris, C.W.  (1938). Foundations of the theory of signs. Chicago: International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science.

Bar-Hillel, Y. & Carnap, R. (1953). Semantic information. British Journal of Science4, 147-157.

Dretske, F.I. (1981), Knowledge and the flow of information. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Barwise, J., Perry, J. (1983). Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Zadeh, L.A. (1986). Test-Score Semantics and a Basis for a Computational Approach to the Representation of Meaning. Literacy and Linguistic Computing, 1(1), 24-35.

Barwise, J., Seligman, J. (1997). Information Flows: The Logic of Distributed Systems. Cambridge, RU: Cambridge University Press.

Física de la información y teoría de la medida

Smoluchowsky, M. von (1912). Experimentell nachweisbare, der üblichen Thermodinamik widersprechende Molekularphänomene. Annalen der Physik, 33, 1559-1570.

Szilárd, L. (1929). Über die Entropie Verminderung in einem therodynamische System bei Eingriffen intelligemter Wesen. Zeitschrift für Physik, 53, 840-856.

Lewis, G.N. (1930). The symmetry of time in Physics. Science, 71, 569-576.

Neumann, J. Von (1932). Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik. Berlin: Springer.

Fischer, R.A. (1935). The design of experiments. Edindurg: Oliver & Boyd.

Brillouin, Leon (1953). The negentropy principle of information. Journal of Applied Physics24, 1152-1163.

Brillouin, Leon (1956). Science and Information Theory. New York: Academic Press.

Weizsäcker, C.F. von. (1974). Die Einheit der Natur. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Weizsäcker, C.F. von. (1985). Aufbau der Physik. Munich: Hanser.


Schrödinger, E. (1944). What is life? The physical aspect of the living cell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weizsäcker, C.F. von. (1974). Die Einheit der Natur. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Sociología de la información

Habermas, Jürgen (1970). "Technology and Science as Ideology". in Toward a Rational Society. J. Shapiro (trans.). Boston: Beacon Press.

Eco, U. (1973). Social Life as Sign System. In D. Robey (ed.). Structuralism, an Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacBride, S. (Dir.) (1980). Communication and Society Today and TomorrowMany Voices, One World: Towards a New, More Just, and More Efficient World Information and Communication Order Paris: UNESCO. International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems.

Habermas, Jürgen (1981). Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.

Machlup, F.; Mansfield, U. (Eds.) (1983). The Study of Information. Interdisciplinary Messages. New York: Wiley.

Luhmann, N. (1987). Soziale SystemeFrankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

Luhmann, N. (1989). Essays on self-reference. New York, Columbia University Press.

Estética de la información

Bense, M. (1969). Einführung in die informationstheoretische ÄesthetikHamburg: Rowohlt.

Moles, A. (1972). Théorie de l’information et perception esthétique. Paris: Denoël.

Biblioteconomía y documentación

Griffith, B. C. (Ed.) (1980). Key papers in information science. New York: Knowledge Industry Publications.

Puntos de vista actuales

Lógica, semántica y filosofía de la información

Benthem, J. van (2003). Logic and the Dynamics of Information. Minds and Machines, 13(4), 503–519.

Benthem, J. van (2008). Tell It Like It Is: Information Flow in Logic. Journal of Peking University (Humanities and Social Science Edition) 1, 80 – 90.

Capurro, Rafael (2008). Digital Hermeneutics: An Outline. in: Elizabeth Buchanan and Carolyn Hansen (eds.). Proceedings. Thinking Critically: Alternative Methods and Perspectives in Library and Information Studies. CIPR, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, p. 190–220.

Chmielecki, A. (1998). What is information? The Paideia Archive, Philosophy and Cognitive Science, 20th. World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, USA [online] <> [Accessed: 12/11/2009].

Floridi, L. (2004). Outline of a theory of strongly semantic information. Minds and Machines14(2), 197-221.

Floridi, L.  (2005a). Information. in Mitcham, C. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science, Technology and Ethics, Macmillan Reference.

Floridi, L.  (2005b). Is Semantic Information Meaningful Data? in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research70(2), 351-370.

Floridi, L.  (2005c). Semantic Conceptions of Information. In E. N. Zahlta (ed.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philisophy. Stanford: The Metaphysics Research Lab [online] <> [accessed: 12/11/09]

Floridi, L.  (2005d). Consciousness, Agents and the Knowledge Game. Minds and Machines15(3-4), 415-444.

Israel, D. & Perry, J. (1990a), What is information?. In P. Hanson (Ed.), Information, language and cognition. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, pp. 1-19.

Israel, D. & Perry, J.   (1990b). Information and architecture. In J. BARWISE, et al. (Eds.), Situation theory and its applications, Stanford, CA: Stanford University-CSLI, pp. 147-160.

Janich, P. (1998). Informationsbegriff und methodisch-kulturalistische Philosophie. Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften, 2, 169-182.

Pérez-Montoro, Mario (2007). The Phenomenon of Information. A Conceptual Approach to Information Flow. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press.

Teoría algorítmica de la información

Chaitin, G. J.  (1982a). Algorithmic Information Theory. In Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Vol. 1, New York: Wiley, 38-41.

Chaitin, G. J.  (1982b). Gödel’s theorem and information. International Journal of Theoretical Physics22, 941-954.

Calude, C. S. (1995). Information and randomness: an algorithmic perspective, Springer.

Aproximaciones matemáticas a la información

Burgin, Mark (2003). Information Theory: a Multifaceted Model of Information. Enthropy, 5, 146-160.

Burgin, Mark (2005). Is Information Some Kind of Data? In Proceedings FIS2005, MDPI, Retrived in 12/09/2010 from:

Burgin, Mark (2010). Theory of Information: Fundamentality, Diversity and Unification. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Flückiger, F. (2005). Mathematical Foundation of Information Theory. A Set Theoretical Approach. In Michel Petitjean (ed.) Proceedings of FIS2005, The Third Conference on the Foundations of Information Science.

Leyton, Michael (1992). Symmetry, Causality, Mind. MIT Press.

Leyton, Michael (2001). A Generative Theory of Shape. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.


Alvarado Ballester, R. (2000). Comunicación, Información, Evolución Biológica, Madrid: Instituto de España.

Gitt, W. (1996), Information, Science and Biology. Technical Journal10(2), 181-187.

Rüting, T. (2004). Jakob von Uexküll — theoretical biology, biocybernetics and biosemiotics. European Communications in Mathematical and Theoretical Biology6, 11-16.

Cibernética y teoría de sistemas

Günther, G. (1963). Das Bewußtsein der Maschinen. Eine Metaphysik der Kybernetik. Krefeld/Baden-Baden, Germany: Agis Verlag.

Haken,  H. (2000). Information and Self-Organization. A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems (2nd edition). Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Física de la información

Bekenstein, J. D. (2003). Information in the Holographic Universe. in Scientific American289(2), 58-65.

Green, H. (2000). Information Theory and Quantum Physics: Physical Foundations for Understanding the Conscious Process. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Lyre, H. (1998). Quantentheorie der Information. Zur Naturphilosophie der Theorie der Ur-Alternativen und einer abstrakten Theorie der Information. Viena: Springer.

Mähler, G. (1996). Quantum Information. In Kornwachs, K. & Jacoby, K. (Eds.). Information. New questions to a multidisciplinary concept. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, pp. 103-118.

Sociología de la Información

Brown, J. S. and Duguin, P. (2000). The Social Life of Information. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Castells, M. (1996-1998). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. (3 volumes). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Fuchs, C. (2008). Internet and Society. Social Theory in the Information Age. New York: Routledge.

Fuchs, C. (2011). Foundations of Critical Media and Information Studies. New York: Routledge.

Karpatschof, B. (2007). Human activity. Contributions to the anthropological sciences from a perspective of activity theory. Lund, Sweden: [online] <> [accessed: 12/11/09].

Mattelart, A. (2006). Histoire de la société de l'informationParis: La Decouverte.


Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins and Use. Praeger Paperback.

Weizsäcker, Karl (1959). "Sprache als Information" [Lenguaje como información] en: Die Sprache [El lenguaje], 5º número del anuario Gestalt und Gedanke, Munich, pp. 45-76.

Wilson. D. & Sperber, D. (1993). Linguistic form and relevance. Lingua, 90, 1–25.

Ciencia de la Información y aproximaciones unificadoras

Brier, Søren (2008). Cybersemiotics: why information is not enough. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Burgin, Mark (2010). Theory of Information: Fundamentality, Diversity and Unification. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Conrad, M., Schwartz, A.W. (Eds.) (1998). Special issue: Foundations of Information Science. The quest for a Unified Theory of Information. Bio Systems, 46(1,2)

Dodig Crnkovic, Gordana (2009). Information and Computation Nets. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr.Mueller.

Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana (2010). The Cybersemiotics and Info-Computationalist Research Programmes as Platforms for Knowledge Production in Organisms and Machines. Entropy 12, 878-901.

Doucette, D., Bichler, R., Hofkirchner, W., and Raffl, C. (2007). Toward a New Science of Information. Data Science Journal, 6(supplement), 198-205.

Fleissner, P., Hofkirchner, W. (1996). Emergent Information. Towards a unified information theory. BioSystems, 2-3 (38), pp. 243-248.

Fenzl, N. & Hofkirchner, W. (1997). Information Processing in Evolutionary Systems. An Outline Conceptual Framework for a Unified Information Theory. In Schweitzer, F. (Ed.), Self-Organization of Complex Structures: From Individual to Collective Dynamics. London: Gordon and Breach, pp. 59-70.

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (1997) Evolution of Learning. The Merging of Semiotic and Evolutionary-System Theories. In: A. M. Meystel (Ed.). Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Semiotics: A Learning Perspective. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 248-251

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (1999a). Towards a Unified Theory of Information. The Merging of Second-Order Cybernetics and Semiotics into a Single and Comprehensive Information Science. In: 15e Congrès International de CybernétiqueNamur 1998, Namur, pp. 175-180

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (Ed.). (1999b). The quest for a unified theory of information. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (2008). How to Achieve a Unified Theory of Information. In Díaz Nafría, J. M., Salto Alemany, F. (eds.). ¿Qué es información? León, Spain: Universidad de León.

Hofkirchner, W., Stockinger, G. (2003). Towards a Unified Theory of Information. 404nOtF0und1(3), N. 24. [Online] < [Consulted: 20/07/2009]

Marijuan, P. (Ed.) (1998). The FIS (Foundations of Information Science) Initiative: A Presentation. Cybernetics & Human Knowing, 5(4), 3-5.

Stonier, T. (1991). Towards a new theory of information. Journal of Information Science17 (5), 257-263

Stonier, T. (1999). The Emerging Global Brain. In Hofkirchner, W. (Ed.). The quest for a unified theory of information. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach. pp. 561-578

UTI (2009) Unified Theory of Information Research Group Website (provides access to links, texts, references and projects related to the Unified Theory of Information) [online] <> [accessed: 12/11/2009]